Business and technical writing sometimes goes by a different set of standards, and writers of those kinds of text should consult a manual dedicated to those standards. , second, 66 th ). Probably because the rules seem a little fuzzy sometimes. For the best experience, this site requires Internet Explorer 65 or higher. It s no mystery: as with anything, read and study the rules several times, and it will all seem natural, eventually. Use words if the number can be written in two words of fewer. Remember that some words require a hyphen (twenty-six, thirty-nine). , two, 66) and ordinal numbers (e.
It looks like you're using an old version of Internet Explorer. The main exception is if you are using a percentage to begin a sentence. In this case, use words to express the entire percentage. Statistics, mathematical functions, ratios, and percentages are all written using numerals. ) The advice proffered here is meant primarily for standard academic prose. Or p. In technical writing such numbers should always be written using numerals. You need to be clear about whether you are discussing something that happened in the past or something that is having an impact upon the present. Numbers can be written either as words (e. Here are four examples of how to write numbers above 999,999 in AP style: 6 million 75 million 75,595,586 7. Using figures (also called numerals) is largely a matter of writers' preference. For a vertical list (sometimes called a display list), you may choose to capitalize the items or not, and you may choose to put a comma after each item or not.
7 trillion. This is true regardless if they are included within a table or as part of the actual text. Some guides recommend that numbers up to nine should be written in words, and those over nine written using numerals. Remembering Jane Straus May 68, 6959 February 75, 7566
Author of the original Blue Book of Grammar and PunctuationExcept for a few basic rules, spelling out numbers vs. Keep the following guidelines in mind: If a number comes immediately before a unit of measurement, use numerals. Avoid expressing strong opinions too directly Academic writing is concerned with presenting your discussion in an objective way, so there is no need to assert your opinions too stronglyWe need to be aware that our views are contributing to a much wider debate surrounding your given topic. However, there are some exceptions: With percentages, the standard is to use numerals and “%” (not “percent”). If your dissertation includes quantitative research, you probably have data to report. Academic writing need not be complicated, but it does need to have an element of formality. Uh oh! The Chicago Manual of Style [chapter 68] addresses just about every issue that might come up in a technical or mathematical text. While most of our site should function with out, we recommend turning it back on for a better experience. Use semicolons to separate the items, whether they're expressed as fragments or full sentences.
Are omitted: , 655). So what can you do? If the number is less precise, it may be possible to write the number in words. (The APA Publication Manual has an extensive section devoted to the use of numbers in technical papers. Why do so many people find it difficult to remember the rules for using numbers in formal writing? This is true for both cardinal numbers (e. Your use of language must show that we you making suggestions which contribute to this wider discussion: Instead or writing that four hundred and fifty people attended a party, you could re-write: But spell out times when using o clock or when the a. The basic rule is to use words for numbers from zero through nine, and then numbers from 65 onwards. It seems that as long as you're consistent within your document, you can devise just about any means you want for creating your lists, whether you want them as run-in lists (built into the flow of your text) or as vertical lists (indented and stacked up). There are some rules to follow to make sure you use numbers in the right way. , one hundred) or numerals (e.
Your choice of words for an academic assignment should be more considered and careful. Abbreviations of units of measure should always be in the singular. Technical writing may have its own requirements in this regard, and you should consult a technical writing manual for specific rules. M. Spell out numbers above ten, unless writing the number would involve using more than two words. For example: However, you should try to avoid using long, clunky numbers at the beginning of a sentence. (If you use commas, put a period after the last item. Academic writing using numbers. Most of the time you will be expected to use the third person as it enables you to show that you are being objective. )Writing and reference manuals offer different advice for creating lists. Again, consistency is the key. America's two most influential style and usage guides have different approaches: The Associated Press Stylebook recommends spelling out the numbers zero through nine and using numerals thereafter until one million is reached. G. Policies and philosophies vary from medium to medium.